Energy from the core is carried outward by radiation, which bounces around the radiative zone, taking about 170,000 years to get from the core to the top of the convective zone. The Sun's Energy Source My ice cream cone drips at both ends Unfortunately, no earthly laboratory can match one feature of the solar powerhouse--the great mass of the Sun, whose weight keeps the hot plasma compressed and confines the "nuclear furnace" to the Sun's core. The energy released by nuclear fusion in the heart of the Sun is eventually radiated away in all directions into space. Sun's temperature and energy density of sunlight ***       The Sun is located at the center of our solar system, and Earth orbits 93 million miles away from it. Radius This released nuclear energy and kept up the high temperature of the Sun's core, and the heat also kept the gas pressure high, keeping the Sun puffed up and stopping gravity from pulling it together any more. This joining results in the production of heat and light, as not all is conserved. Specifically, in the Sun’s core, hydrogen atoms fuse to make helium. Their electric repulsion does not allow them to get close enough for the nuclear force to take over. Yet the Sun is so large that it has been burning hydrogen at this rate ever since it formed some 5 billion years ago, and it will continue to burn steadily for at least another 4 billion years. ***       If a combination of particles contains extra energy--for instance, in a molecule of the explosive TNT--weighing it will reveal some extra mass (compared to its end products--an unmeasurably small difference, for TNT). Storms of matter and energy from the sun travel out into space. Electric forces are definitely not the glue that holds nuclei together, they act in the wrong direction! For some time now it was believed that very massive black hole existed at the center of our galaxy, and if so, probably also at the centers of other galaxies, helping hold them together. When scientists downlinked data from Parker Solar Probe's sixth orbit, there was a surprise waiting for them: a sungrazing comet. Nature contains nuclei of many different sizes. Even with ingenious tricks, the confinement in most cases lasts only a small fraction of a second. That force had to be stronger than the electric repulsion at short distances, but weaker far away, or else different nuclei might have tended to clump together, too. All such stars burn hydrogen to produce helium, where "burn" refers to nuclear processes, not to the (completely inadequate) chemical process of fire. Above the photosphere lie the tenuous chromosphere and the corona (crown), which make up the thin solar atmosphere. Site Manager: It has a lovely taste! These sunspots taste delicious .     As for the "supernova remnant" left over from the collapse, its fate depends on its mass. According to Dr. Louis Barbier, a comic ray astrophysicist with NASA, the sun creates “ So as Earth turns, the ocean surface seems to rise and fall. What is the nearest star outside our galaxy?. Question concerned with teaching about nuclear fusion. It’s classified as a yellow dwarf star. It that star originally rotated around its axis, that rotation is enormously speeded up; the remnant of the supernova of the year 1054 (its ejected cloud, the "Crab Nebula," is shown on the left) is spinning at about 30 revolutions per second! Almost all elements on Earth that are heavier than helium (except, possibly, a small amount of lithium) must have arrived that way: products of nuclear burning in some pre-solar star, released or created in the explosion accompanying its final collapse. Recent observations show that an unusually weak spot in Earth's magnetic field is expanding, weakening, and splitting. The energy for Earth’s tides comes mostly from the Moon’s gravity and a little from the Sun’s gravity. As we go on to elements heavier than oxygen, the energy which can be gained by assembling them from lighter elements decreases, up to iron [more precisely, a low-abundance isotope of nickel marks the peak].     Thus in theory such stars are like the proverbial bottomless pit, although no observation could ever confirm it. Heat is the motion of atoms and molecules: the higher the temperature, the greater their velocity and the more violent are their collisions. I eat it in great haste NASA’s Parker Solar Probe was at the right place at the right time to capture a unique view of comet NEOWISE.     The Sun has begun a new cycle. ***       On the other hand, if a process existed going in the opposite direction, by which hydrogen atoms could be combined to form helium, a lot of energy would be released-- namely, ΔE=Δm c2 per nucleus, where Δm is the difference between the mass of the helium nucleus and the mass of four protons (plus 2 electrons, absorbed to create the neutrons of helium). The strong nuclear force (the only nuclear force considered from here on) can bind protons and neutrons into bigger nuclei. The Sun's Energy Source It is believed that the Sun is about 5 billion years old, formed when gravity pulled together a vast cloud of gas and dust, from which the Earth and other planets also arose. Furthermore, electrons were sometimes shared by neighboring atoms or transferred to them (by processes of quantum physics), and this link between atoms gave our world its many chemical compounds. This may seem surprising at first, since the visible … The temperature of the photosphere is about 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit (5,500 degrees Celsius). Timeline                     How much longer will it shine, before its fuel runs out? Photo credit: Sandia Labs. One therefore expects such objects to be completely black (Except for light from matter falling into them!   The Earth keeps its size because its gravity is not strong enough to crush the minerals of which it consists.     NASA IMAGE satellite,Ask the Space Scientist Archive The gases in the Sun rotate faster at the equator than the poles. Energy from the core is carried outward by radiation, which bounces around the radiative zone, taking about 170,000 years to get from the core to the top of the convective zone. 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